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Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism (Low Thyroid Hormone)

The thyroid is a gland that resembles a small butterfly and is situated in the neck. It serves a critical function in controlling the metabolism, energy levels, and general health of the body. When its hormone production decreases, it can lead to a range of noticeable symptoms that shouldn’t be overlooked.

Hypothyroidism Signs & Symptoms

In this article, we’ll explore some common signs that could suggest you’re low on thyroid hormone. This will better enable you to stay vigilant and take necessary steps for your well-being.

1. Fatigue

Feeling tired and sluggish can sometimes signal a deeper issue within our bodies. If you find yourself constantly battling fatigue, it could be a red flag. This is because it might indicate a potential problem with your thyroid hormone levels. When this gland fails to produce an adequate amount of thyroid hormones, the result is often a range of symptoms.

Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine and thyroxine (1), influence how our bodies use energy. When levels of these hormones dip too low, the body’s metabolic rate decreases. This may lead to a cascade of effects, including a pronounced feeling of tiredness and a lack of energy. This fatigue can be debilitating, making it challenging to engage in daily activities. This can often leave you feeling drained and unable to focus on tasks at hand.

Low thyroid hormone levels can also disrupt the balance of other bodily systems, causing additional symptoms such as weight gain, sensitivity to cold, dry skin, and brittle hair. The impact of this condition can extend beyond physical well-being, as individuals may also experience mood swings, depression, and difficulty concentrating. Recognizing these signs and understanding their potential connection to thyroid function is crucial for seeking appropriate medical attention and addressing the underlying cause of the fatigue.

2. Weight Gain

When it comes to our bodies, weight gain can often be attributed to various factors. Some factors are not immediately apparent. One such factor is the delicate balance of thyroid hormones (2).

The thyroid gland produces hormones that control how the body uses energy. It influences vital functions such as body temperature, heart rate, and even how quickly food is converted into energy or stored as fat. When the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of these hormones, a condition known as hypothyroidism (3) can occur. One of the hallmark symptoms of hypothyroidism is unexplained weight gain.

Weight gain associated with a sluggish thyroid can be perplexing and frustrating, as it often occurs despite efforts to maintain a healthy diet and exercise routine. This is because the decrease in thyroid hormones can cause the body’s metabolic rate to slow down, making it more difficult to burn calories efficiently. Consequently, excess calories can be stored as fat, leading to gradual weight gain over time.

3. Cold Sensitivity

When your thyroid hormone levels drop, it can cause a range of symptoms, one of which is heightened sensitivity to cold. This cold intolerance can manifest in various ways, from feeling excessively chilly in mild temperatures to experiencing profound discomfort in response to even slight changes in the weather.

For some, the sensitivity can extend beyond physical discomfort, impacting their day-to-day activities and overall well-being. Tasks that involve exposure to cold environments, such as outdoor sports or even routine chores, may become challenging or even unbearable. Additionally, the persistent feeling of being cold can lead to emotional distress and a reduced quality of life, affecting social interactions and general mood.

Early detection and management of thyroid-related conditions are crucial for maintaining overall health and well-being. Addressing thyroid hormone imbalances through medication and lifestyle adjustmentsis possible.

Your thyroid is responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions. One of these is the hormone responsible for maintaining healthy skin. When the thyroid isn’t producing enough of this vital hormone, it can lead to dry, flaky, and itchy skin that no amount of lotion seems to soothe.

As the hormone levels drop, your skin’s ability to retain moisture is compromised, leaving it feeling rough, scaly, and sometimes even cracked. This isn’t just a superficial concern. It can significantly impact your comfort and self-confidence.

Identifying this connection between dry skin and thyroid health can be a crucial first step in addressing potential thyroid issues. If you notice persistent dryness despite your skincare routine, it might be worth discussing with your healthcare provider. A simple blood test can reveal whether your thyroid hormone levels are within the healthy range or if they might be contributing to your skin problems.

5. Hair Loss

The connection between hair loss and thyroid function is rooted in the delicate balance of hormones within the body. Specifically, the thyroid gland produces hormones that are essential for the growth and renewal of hair follicles.

When the thyroid hormone levels drop below the normal range, the hair growth cycle can be disrupted, leading to excessive shedding and thinning of the hair. Individuals with hypothyroidism might notice hair loss not only on their scalp but also on other parts of the body.

Furthermore, the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on the hair is not limited to hair loss alone. It can also affect the texture and quality of the remaining hair, causing it to become dry, brittle, and more prone to breakage. This change in hair texture often accompanies other symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weight gain, and sensitivity to cold temperatures.

Diagnosing the link between hair loss and thyroid function involves a comprehensive assessment by a healthcare professional. This assessment typically includes a thorough evaluation of the patient’s medical history, a physical examination, and specific blood tests to measure the levels of thyroid hormones. Once diagnosed, treatment for hypothyroidism usually involves hormone replacement therapy (4), which aims to restore the balance of thyroid hormones in the body and, in turn, address the associated hair loss.

6. Muscle Weakness

Muscle weakness is a common symptom of hypothyroidism, which means your thyroid is underactive. This condition affects millions of people, and it can happen for various reasons. Sometimes, it’s due to an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, where your own immune system attacks your thyroid. Other times, it can result from iodine deficiency or certain medications.

The thing is, muscle weakness often creeps up slowly. You might not notice it at first, but as it progresses, it can make everyday activities a real challenge. You might struggle to climb stairs, carry groceries, or even lift your kids. It’s not just about feeling weak; it can also lead to muscle cramps, aches, and stiffness.

7. Joint Pain

Thyroid hormones play a vital role in maintaining the overall health of your bones and joints. In such cases, the lack of these crucial hormones can directly impact the health of your joints, resulting in increased sensitivity, stiffness, and discomfort during movement. This connection emphasizes the importance of understanding the potential interplay between thyroid function and joint health, encouraging individuals to pay closer attention to their bodies and seek appropriate medical guidance when experiencing persistent joint pain.

This link between thyroid hormone levels and joint pain underscores the significance of timely diagnosis and treatment. While joint pain can stem from various factors, including aging, injuries, or underlying medical conditions, acknowledging the potential role of thyroid health can prompt people to seek comprehensive medical assessments, enabling early detection and management of thyroid-related issues.

By recognizing joint pain as a possible signal of low thyroid hormone levels, individuals can proactively address underlying health concerns, potentially preventing the progression of thyroid-related complications and minimizing the impact on their overall well-being.

8. Constipation

Thyroid hormones affect the muscles in your digestive tract, helping to keep them moving smoothly. When your thyroid is sluggish, these muscles can slow down, causing food and waste to move more slowly through your intestines. This delay can lead to constipation (5).

Another factor is that thyroid hormones help regulate the balance of fluids in your body. When these hormones are low, the body may not be able to maintain the right amount of moisture in your intestines, making your stools hard and difficult to pass.

Furthermore, hypothyroidism can cause a decrease in your overall energy levels. When you lack the energy needed for proper bodily functions, it can affect the coordination of your intestines, making them less efficient at moving waste through your system.

9. Irregular Menstrual Cycles

The menstrual cycle is tied to the intricate interplay of hormones, including estrogen (6) and progesterone (7). These hormones regulate the entire cycle, from the development and release of the egg to the thickening of the uterine lining. However, when the thyroid hormone levels decrease, it can interfere with the production and regulation of these key reproductive hormones. This disruption can lead to irregular periods, characterized by changes in cycle length, unpredictable bleeding, or even missed periods.

Women experiencing irregular menstrual cycles should be aware of the potential link between these irregularities and thyroid health (8). A thorough examination by a healthcare professional, including hormone level testing, can help to identify any underlying thyroid issues.

It is crucial to understand that irregular menstrual cycles alone may not conclusively indicate a thyroid problem, as various factors can contribute to menstrual irregularities (9). Nonetheless, being mindful of the potential connection between the two can prompt individuals to seek timely medical advice and necessary investigations.

Early detection and appropriate management of thyroid disorders can not only restore menstrual regularity but also prevent potential complications associated with untreated thyroid imbalances. Therefore, maintaining awareness and seeking timely medical guidance can be instrumental in maintaining overall well-being and reproductive health.


Being aware of the signs of low thyroid hormone (10) is crucial for maintaining your overall well-being. If you suspect that you might be experiencing any of these symptoms, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Remember, taking care of your thyroid health is a fundamental part of ensuring your body functions optimally, allowing you to lead a healthy and balanced life.